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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

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Ancient Egypt

The history and development of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt is one of the world's oldest civilizations, dating back over 6,000 years to the Pre-Dynastic Period [1]. The Pre-Dynastic Period was followed by the Early Dynastic Period, which began around 3100 BCE with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the rule of King Menes [2]. This period saw the establishment of a centralized government, the development of hieroglyphic writing, and the construction of monumental architecture such as the Step Pyramid of Djoser [3]. The Early Dynastic Period was a crucial time in the history of Ancient Egypt, laying the foundation for the country's future growth and development.

The Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt represent periods of great prosperity and cultural achievement. The Old Kingdom, which lasted from the Third Dynasty to the Sixth Dynasty (2686-2181 BCE), saw the construction of the Great Pyramids of Giza and the establishment of a strong centralized government [4] [5]. The Middle Kingdom, which lasted from roughly 2000-1700 BCE, was characterized by cultural changes and the expansion of trade and diplomacy with neighboring regions [6] [7]. The New Kingdom, which began around 1550 BCE, was a time of great military conquests and the establishment of a vast empire [8]. During this period, Egypt reached the height of its power and influence, with pharaohs such as Hatshepsut and Ramses II leaving lasting legacies [8].

Ancient Egypt

Despite its long and illustrious history, Ancient Egypt eventually experienced a decline and fall. The country went through a series of occupations and suffered from economic crises and droughts [9] [10]. The Assyrians, Persians, and Greeks all invaded and controlled Egypt at various times [11]. As a consequence, the country's native religious culture went into decline, and the ability to read hieroglyphics was lost [12]. After Ramses III, Egypt went into a period of decline, and sometime after 1100 BCE, it split into two kingdoms [13]. Despite its eventual decline, Ancient Egypt remains a fascinating and influential civilization that has left an enduring legacy on the world.

The culture and society of Ancient Egypt

Religion and beliefs were an essential part of Ancient Egyptian culture. The religion of Ancient Egypt was polytheistic, with a multitude of deities believed to inhabit the cosmos [14]. The gods varied in nature and capacity, and their worship was an integral part of daily life. The religion of Ancient Egypt lasted for more than 3,000 years and played a significant role in shaping the culture and society of the time [15]. However, over time, as with many other ancient civilizations, the pagan beliefs gradually faded and were replaced by monotheistic religions. Today, the majority of the Egyptian population is Muslim, with a small minority still practicing ancient Egyptian beliefs [16].

The society of Ancient Egypt was strictly divided into a hierarchical system, with the pharaoh at the top and farmers and slaves at the bottom [17]. The pharaoh was considered a god-king, and his authority was strengthened by the belief in Egyptian religion [18]. The social structure was well-organized, with six classes of society, including the pharaoh, nobility, and clergy [19]. The daily life of the people varied depending on their social status, with royalty, nobility, and clergy enjoying lives of wealth and comfort, while farmers and slaves struggled to subsist [20]. The social hierarchy played a significant role in shaping the culture and society of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was renowned for its art, architecture, and literature. Egyptian art and architecture included monumental structures, such as the pyramids and temples, as well as smaller-scale works, such as jewelry and sculptures [21]. The art relied heavily on symbolism as a way to communicate ideas and beliefs [22]. Egyptian literature included a wide array of narrative and poetic forms, including inscriptions on tombs, stele, and obelisks [23]. The literature and art of Ancient Egypt provide a glimpse into the culture and society of the time, and continue to captivate and inspire people today [24][25].

The legacy of Ancient Egypt

The legacy of Ancient Egypt extends far beyond its time, influencing later civilizations in numerous ways. Egypt provided the building blocks for the Aegean, Greek, and Roman cultures, which in turn, influenced many aspects of Western tradition [26]. The art and architecture of Ancient Egypt have been reimagined in later cultures through objects created thousands of years ago, demonstrating the lasting impact of this civilization [27]. The Egyptians excelled in both art and architecture, and numerous structures and art pieces have stood the test of time, still amazing people today [28]. Thus, the influence of Ancient Egypt can be seen in various aspects of modern-day life.

The rediscovery and study of Ancient Egypt have also contributed to its legacy. The archaeology of Egypt spans prehistory through three millennia of documented history, making it a fascinating subject of study [29]. The fascination with Ancient Egypt has led to numerous pieces of modern literature inspired by its spellbinding memory [30]. The rediscovery of Ancient Egypt in the 19th century by artists and travelers has been extensively documented in books such as The Rediscovery of Ancient Egypt by Peter A. Clayton.As a result, the study and rediscovery of Ancient Egypt have contributed to its continued legacy.

Ancient Egypt

The preservation and conservation of Ancient Egyptian monuments and artifacts are crucial to maintaining their legacy for future generations. Conservation is the practice of preserving the world's cultural heritage for the future [31]. An efficient monuments protection strategy would be the devising of a comprehensive program to review and evaluate Egypt's archaeological resources and ensure their proper preservation [32]. Unfortunately, priceless monuments and artifacts are disintegrating due to exposure to the elements, making conservation efforts all the more important [33]. The rhetoric of preservation began to suffuse the archaeology of Egypt in the late nineteenth century, and the techniques and methods of art conservation and restoration continue to evolve [34]. Thus, the preservation and conservation of Ancient Egyptian monuments and artifacts play a critical role in maintaining the legacy of this remarkable civilization.

References

1.Upper Lower Egypt Overview Unification. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from study.com
2.Early Dynastic Period In Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.worldhistory.org/Early_Dynastic_Period_In_Egypt/
3.Predynastic and Early Dynastic, an introduction (article). (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.khanacademy.org
4.Explained: Egypt's Old, Middle New Kingdoms. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.thetravel.com/egypts-old-middle-new-kingdoms/
5.The Three Kingdoms, Ancient Egypt for Kids. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from egypt.mrdonn.org/3kingdoms.html
6.Ancient Egyptian Buildings: Old, Middle New Kingdoms. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from study.com
7.The 3 Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.historyhit.com/the-kingdoms-of-ancient-egypt/
8.Ancient Egyptian History for Kids: Timeline. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_egyptian_timeline.php
9.What Caused Ancient Egypt's Decline?. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.history.com/news/decline-ancient-egypt-causes
10.The Decline of Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.studentsofhistory.com/the-decline-of-egypt
11.The Decline of Ancient Egypt | Western Civilization. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from courses.lumenlearning.com
12.Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt
13.The New Kingdom - Part Two and the Age of Decline. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.penfield.edu
14.Ancient Egyptian religion - Polytheism, Netjer, Images, .... (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.britannica.com/topic/ancient-Egyptian-religion/The-Gods
15.Ancient Egyptian Religion | World Civilization. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from courses.lumenlearning.com
16.Egyptian civilization - Religion. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.historymuseum.ca
17.3b. Egyptian Social Structure. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.ushistory.org/civ/3b.asp
18.Chapter 9 Daily Life in Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.pcsb.org
19.Ancient Egypt | Social Structure, Classes Hierarchy. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from study.com
20.Social Structure in Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.worldhistory.org
21.Egyptian art and architecture - Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.britannica.com/art/Egyptian-art
22.Ancient Egypt History Artwork | What was Ancient Egypt?. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from study.com
23.Ancient Egyptian Literature. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.worldhistory.org/Egyptian_Literature/
24.Art of ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_of_ancient_Egypt
25.Ancient Egyptian Art and Architecture. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.arthipo.com
26.Ancient Egypt, an introduction (article). (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.khanacademy.org
27.'Echoes of Egypt' reveals ancient culture's impact across the .... (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from news.yale.edu
28.How ancient Egyptian civilization influenced the modern .... (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.readersdigest.co.uk
29.Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology_of_Ancient_Egypt
30.Young Readers Series: Ancient Egypt Rediscovered. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from cty.jhu.edu
31.Conservation of Egyptian art | Resource. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from edu.rsc.org
32.Protecting the Egyptian monuments: Fundamentals of .... (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110016813000914
33.The Science of Preserving Egypt's Cultural Heritage. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.mei.edu
34.Ruins of Preservation: Conserving Ancient Egypt 1880–1914. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from academic.oup.com

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