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Ancient Egypt history

 

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Ancient Egypt history

ancinet egypt

Ancient Egypt history

The rise of Ancient Egypt

The history of Ancient Egypt begins with the early civilization and the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Archaic Period, Egypt was divided into two lands, each with its own king [1]. However, around 3100 BC, King Narmer of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt, and the two kingdoms were united into a single entity, marking the beginning of the First Dynasty [2]. This unification was a significant event in the history of Egypt and Mesopotamia, as Egypt became the first empire in the world [3]. The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt allowed for the development of a centralized government and the establishment of a strong, stable society [4].

The Old Kingdom of Egypt, which lasted from approximately 2686 BC to 2181 BC, is known for the construction of the pyramids and the Sphinx under the rule of Pharaoh Khufu [5]. Pyramid building reached its height during the early Dynasty 4, and many Old Kingdom kings had pyramid complexes built in the region of Memphis, which was the capital of Egypt during this period [6][7][8][9]. The works of the Old Kingdom were commissioned and controlled by the royalty and are uniform in appearance and style [10].

 

Ancient Egypt history

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt, which lasted from approximately 2055 BC to 1650 BC, was a transformational period in ancient Egypt. During this time, older artistic conventions and cultural principles were challenged, and new ideas emerged [11]. The Middle Kingdom was a time of expansion of trade and diplomacy, with Egypt building diplomatic and trade relations with Syria and Nubia [3]. The increasing competition for power in Egypt and Nubia crystallized in the formation of two new dynasties: the 15th, called the Hyksos, and the 16th, which was based in Thebes [12][13]. Overall, the Middle Kingdom marked a significant period of growth and development in Ancient Egypt's history.


The peak of Ancient Egypt's power and influence

The New Kingdom, also known as the Egyptian Empire, marked the peak of Ancient Egypt's power and influence. It spanned from the sixteenth century BC to the eleventh century BC and was characterized by the reign of pharaohs [14]. During this period, the pharaohs were considered god-kings and were believed to have divine powers [15]. The New Kingdom was a time of great wealth, prosperity, and political stability for Ancient Egypt [16]. It was a period of nearly 500 years of political stability, known especially for monumental architecture and statuary honoring the gods and pharaohs [17]. The warrior pharaohs of the New Kingdom engaged in successful military campaigns and expeditions, expanding their territory and achieving great military conquests [18].

 

Ancient Egypt history

The expansion of territory and military conquests during the New Kingdom were essential to Ancient Egypt's power and influence. The pharaohs of the New Kingdom restored their control over Nubia and began military campaigns in Palestine, clashing with other powers in the area [3]. The main military concern for Ancient Egypt was to keep enemies out, and their concentrated military campaigns and expeditions were wildly successful, which afforded Ancient Egypt with its vast territory [19]. However, in 666 BCE, Ashurbanipal invaded Egypt and conquered the land all the way past Thebes, marking the end of the New Kingdom and the decline of Ancient Egypt's power and influence [20].

Ancient Egypt history

The achievements in art, architecture, and science during the New Kingdom were remarkable and continue to impress people to this day. Egyptian architecture during this period was characterized by its use of massive stone structures, such as the pyramids and the Sphinx [21]. Apart from the pyramids, Egyptian buildings were decorated with paintings, carved stone images, hieroglyphs, and three-dimensional statues [22]. The art of Ancient Egypt aimed at the preservation of forms and conventions that were held to reflect the perfection of the world of the gods [23]. Egyptian art relied on symbolism as a way to help the viewer understand the deeper meaning behind the art [24]. The artistic achievements in both architecture and representational art during the New Kingdom were a testament to the wealth and prosperity of Ancient Egypt during this period [25].

 

The decline and fall of Ancient Egypt

The decline and fall of Ancient Egypt can be attributed to various factors, including political instability and foreign invasions. A long period of civil war and conflict engulfed Egypt, leaving it vulnerable to further invasions and control from foreign powers [26]. In 671 BCE, Egypt experienced a civil war and remained split between two regions, which made it easier for the Assyrians to invade and take control [27]. The once-great empire was also brought to its knees by a centuries-long drought, economic crises, and opportunistic foreign invaders [28]. As a result, the political instability and foreign invasions ultimately led to the decline of Ancient Egypt.

 

Ancient Egypt history

The Late Period of Ancient Egypt was characterized by the rule of foreign powers, which further contributed to its decline. During this time, Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, and ultimately the Persians [29][30]. While the Persians adopted the traditional title of pharaoh, they ruled as foreigners rather than Egyptians [31]. The Late Period was also marked by a renewal of Egyptian nationalism and pride, as they attempted to throw off Persian rule [32][33]. However, the introduction of foreign powers ultimately led to the decline and fall of Ancient Egypt.

 

Despite its decline and fall, Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy and influence on modern civilization. Egyptians left valuable inventions and discoveries that changed the course of history and led to the development of the modern world [34]. The civilization's many achievements, preserved in its art and architecture, continue to inspire and captivate people today [3][35][29]. Additionally, Ancient Egypt had a profound influence on Ancient Greece, particularly in the areas of natural history and ancient history [36]. Thus, while Ancient Egypt may have fallen, its legacy continues to live on in modern civilization.

References

1. Ancient Egypt - the Archaic Period and Old Kingdom. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.penfield.edu
2. Upper Lower Egypt Overview Unification. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from study.com
3. Ancient Egypt: Civilization, Empire Culture. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt/ancient-egypt
4. Upper and Lower Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_and_Lower_Egypt
5. The Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.memphistours.com
6. Egypt in the Old Kingdom (ca. 2649–2130 B.C.) | Essay. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/oking/hd_oking.htm
7. Egyptian Pyramids - Facts, Use Construction. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.history.com/topics/ancient-egypt/the-egyptian-pyramids
8. Old Kingdom of Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt
9. The Pyramid Age (The Old Kingdom) - Digital Giza. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from giza.fas.harvard.edu
10. Middle Kingdom of Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.worldhistory.org/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt/
11. Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.metmuseum.org
12. Middle Egypt in the Late Third/Early Second Millennium BC. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.jstor.org/stable/44984049
13. The Middle Kingdom (1938–c. 1630 bce) and the Second .... (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.britannica.com
14. New Kingdom of Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt
15. New Kingdom of Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.worldhistory.org/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt/
16. New Kingdom - Ancient Egypt for Kids. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_egypt/new_kingdom.php
17. Egypt in the New Kingdom (ca. 1550–1070 B.C.) | Essay. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/nking/hd_nking.htm
18. Ancient Egyptian History - The New Kingdom (Part One). (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.penfield.edu
19. Military of ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of_ancient_Egypt
20. Ancient Egyptian Warfare. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.worldhistory.org/Egyptian_Warfare/
21. Ancient Egyptian Art Architecture History Politics Culture. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.tutorialspoint.com
22. Egyptian civilization - Architecture. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.historymuseum.ca
23. Egyptian art and architecture | History, Characteristics, .... (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.britannica.com/art/Egyptian-art
24. Ancient Egypt History Artwork | What was Ancient Egypt?. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from study.com
25. Art of ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_of_ancient_Egypt
26. 3.2: The Political History of Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from human.libretexts.org
27. The Decline of Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.studentsofhistory.com/the-decline-of-egypt
28. What Caused Ancient Egypt's Decline?. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.history.com/news/decline-ancient-egypt-causes
29. Ancient Egypt | History, Government, Culture, Map, Facts. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.britannica.com/place/ancient-Egypt
30. Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt
31. Egypt in the Late Period (ca. 664–332 B.C.) | Essay. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/lapd/hd_lapd.htm
32. Late Period of Ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.worldhistory.org/Late_Period_of_Ancient_Egypt/
33. Late Period of ancient Egypt. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_Egypt
34. How ancient Egyptian civilization influenced the modern .... (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.readersdigest.co.uk
35. Ancient Egypt: History, dynasties, religion and writing. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from www.livescience.com/55578-egyptian-civilization.html
36. The Enduring Legacy of Ancient Egypt - Rhakotis. (n.d.) Retrieved June 15, 2023, from rhakotis.com/2020/08/19/legacy/

 

Ancient Egypt history

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Ancient Egypt history

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